This manual, FM 21-31 Topographic Symbols, describes the topographic symbols and abbreviations authorized for use by all echelons in the interpretation of military maps, overlays, and related features and activities.
Land navigation was one of the first skills I learned as a child. I used to spend hours looking at old maps and visualizing the landscape by looking at the topography. I got to be pretty good at navigating without a compass just by comparing the map to my surroundings.
It is unfortunate that car atlases and land navigation are becoming lost outside of specialized outdoorsmen because people are relying more and more on technology.[pdf-embedder url=”https://www.tngun.com/wp-content/uploads/FM-21-31-Topographic-Symbols.pdf” title=”FM 21-31 Topographic Symbols”]